If you can afford it get a touring bike it would eliminate a lot of hassle, but if money is tight and you want to go with what you've got then just do it! Touring with a road bike does not present more problems, just a different type of challenge. A road bike won't be as stable loaded with gear as a touring bike would be so you will have to keep a diligent mind on handling issues but it won't drive you nuts either. You can find used touring bikes and lot of the time they've been used little, or there are nice new ones that cost less then $1500 new like the Kona Sutra a ready to tour bike that comes with full racks, fenders, and disk brakes for under $1200; or the Jamis Aurora which comes with front and rear fenders but no racks but it is a beautiful bike for under $1100; or the Motobecane Gran Turismo from Bikes Direct for $700 which is equipped similar to the Trek 520 but for hundreds less and had had many high reviews, comes with a rear rack too. There are other touring bikes that can be found for under $1500 but those three I feel represent the best value for the money.
Otherwise if you want to stay with your road bike then keep reading.
It's no big deal to put MTB pedals, or pedals with toe straps on a road bike, then you can use whatever mtb shoe you want.
They also make brackets for panniers to go on bikes without eyelets for pannier racks, see item2, item 3, item 4, and for oversized forks item 5: http://www.thetouringstore.com/TUBUS/Fit%20Solutions/FIT%20SOLUTIONS%20PAGE.htm
You can also change your front and rear gearing to make it a bit easier to climb grades with a load.
Invest in a set of SKS RaceBlade fenders, it will keep spray off you and the bike.
Put on the widest most durable tires you can get that will fit your bike, if you bike is a modern race bike then it's doubtful you can put anything wider than a 25. The best for the money is the Panaracer Pasela TG folding, than since flats are a pain when touring get a pair of Panaracer FlatAway tire liners but do not get those cheap poly plastic liners they don't work as good, and their heavier. Also get a pair of thick tubes like thorn resistant tubes. A better tire, but more expensive, is the Schwalbe Marathon Plus but it is heavy due to the flat protection technology.
The only questionable problem you might have is relative comfort of being on a race bike day in and day out.
Also carbon bikes are really not designed to use a clamp on pannier rack to the stays, over tightening the bolts could crush the CF tube. There is a reason CF bikes are not used for heavy touring because the CF is too fragile for loaded touring unless you go with a backpack then you raise your center of gravity making the bike more unstable. But you could use a CF race bike if your into ultralight touring or credit card touring. Most modern CF race bikes will allow up to a size 25 tire a few will only let you use 23 and nothing larger.