We sometimes stop in the afternoon to buy hamburger, spaghetti sauce, and pasta noodles, then ride another hour or two. At camp, brown the meat, add jar or can of sauce, boil the noodles and you've got an easy, quick dinner with protein and carbs. Once, we did this every day for about 10 days in a row.
Tuna fish and minute rice, with a can of cream of celery soup is another fast and nutritious meal.
For breakfast every day I have oatmeal with PB, apple slices, raisins, nuts, etc all mixed in.
Lunch consists of bagels with PB or cheese, apples, chocolate bars.
We carry very little food when touring in areas where there are towns. You don't need to--all this kind of stuff is available in even very small towns.
Eating well on a bike tour is much easier than on backpack or climbing trips.